I. Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that best completes the statement and blacken the corresponding letter A,B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET.(30%)
1. “Woman” becomes “Frau” in German, “femme” in French and “fùnǔ” in Chinese. This example shows that in different languages the same concept can be represented by different ______．
A. sounds B．forms
C. unities D．meanings
2.The following words of the basic word stock denote the most common things and phenomena of the world around us EXCEPT ______．
A. fire B．hot
C. photoscanning D．sister
3.Aliens are borrowed words which have retained their original pronunciation and spelling. Which of the following words comes from Chinese?
A. Bazaar. B．Kowtow.
C. Rajah. D．Blitzkrieg.
4.The Indo-European language family is made up of the languages of the following EXCEPT ______．
A. Europe B．the Far East
C. India D．the Near East
5. Which of the following is NOT one of the main sources of new words in the present-day English vocabulary?
A. The rapid development of modern science and technology.
B． Social, economic and political changes.
C. The invasion of foreign countries.
D． The influence of other cultures and languages.
6. Modern English vocabulary develops through the following channels EXCEPT ______.
A. creation B． borrowing
C. semantic change D． lexical change
7. How many monomorphemic words are there in the following words?
cats boss work improper tried
8. Among the following words, “______” does NOT have inflectional affixes.
A. liked B．children’s
C. happier D．it’s
9. Which of the following words does NOT have suffixes?
A. Northward. B．Widen.
C. Happy. D．Worker.
10. Among the following words, “______ ” contains a negative prefix.
A. amoral B． de-compose
C. antiwar D． foretell
11. From the viewpoint of word formation, the word “smog” is a ______.
A. compound B． conversion
C. clipping D． blending
12. Which of the following is partially converted?
A. A white. B．A drunk.
C. The poor. D． Finals.
13. One can figure out the meaning of “airmail” to be “mail by air” by its ______.
A. onomatopoeic motivation B． morphological motivation
C. semantic motivation D． etymological motivation
14. When a reader comes across the word “home” in his reading, the word may remind him of his “family, friends, warmth, safety, etc. ” In this sense, the word “home” conveys ______.
A. connotative meaning B．stylistic meaning
C. affective meaning D．collocative meaning
15. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. Grammatical meaning refers to the part of speech, tenses of verbs and stylistic features of
B．Unlike conceptual meaning, associative meaning is unstable and indeterminate.
C. Affective meaning indicates the listener’s attitude towards the person or thing in question.
D． Collocation cannot affect the meaning of words.
16. Words that are identical only in spelling but different in sound and meaning are called ______.
A. perfect homonyms B． homographs
C. homophones D． homonyms
17. The differences between synonyms exist in the following areas EXCEPT ______.
A. denotation B． connotation
C. reference D． application
18. “Apple, pear, peach, orange, lemon, etc.” make up the ______ of “fruit”.
A. synonyms B． homonyms
C. superordinate term D． semantic field
19. ______ of meaning is a process by which a word that originally had a specialized meaning
has now become generalized.
A. Degradation B． Elevation
C. Extension D． Specilization
20. Which of the following is NOT one of the extra-linguistic factors that cause changes in meaning?
A. Cultural reason. B． Historical reason.
C. Class reason. D． Psychological reason.
21. The word “minister” originally meant“a servant”, but now has changed to“a head of a ministry”. This process of meaning change is called ______．
A. extension B． elevation
C. degradation D． specialization
22. In grammatical context, the meaning of a word may be influenced by the ______in which it occurs.
A. structure B．sentence
C. phrase D．clause
23. There is an ambiguity in the sentence “He is a hard businessman” due to ______.
A. polysemy B． homonymy
C. synonymy D． antonymy
24. Which of the following is NOT one of the context clues?
A. Definition. B． Polysemy.
C. Synonymy. D． Antonymy.
25. Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics of idioms?
A. The part of speech of each element in an idiom is very important.
B． The constituents of idioms can’t be replaced.
C. The word order in an idiom can’t be changed.
D． An idiom functions as one word.
26. Idioms nominal in nature have a(n) ______ as the key word in each and function as a noun in sentences.
A. verb B．adjective
C. preposition D．noun
27. Lexical manipulation is one aspect of the rhetorical features of idioms. The following EXCEPT ______ belong to lexical manipulation.
A. alliteration B． reiteration
C. repetition D． juxtaposition
28. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 3rd Edition (1980), is among the best-known British ______ dictionaries.
A. unabridged B．desk
C. pocket D．bilingual
29. Generally, a dictionary covers the following contents EXCEPT ______.
A. spelling B． pronunciation
C. definition D． syntactical rules
30. Collins COBUILD English Language Dictionary (1987) has some unique features such as definition, extra column and ______.
A. pronunciation B． grammar codes
C. usage examples D． language codes
Ⅱ.Complete the following statements with proper words or expressions according to the course book.(15%)
31. A word is a ______ free form of a language that has a given sound and meaning and syntactic function.
32. In Old English period, the introduction of Christianity had a great impact on the English vocabulary. It brought many new ideas and customs, and also many ______ terms such as “candle, altar, amen”.
33. A ______ is the basic form of a word which cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity.
34. “Exam” is the shortened form of “examination” by back clipping. Then “quake” is used to mean “earthquake” by ______ clipping.
35. Motivation accounts for the connection between the linguistic symbol and its ______．
36. From the ______ point of view, polysemy is viewed as the coexistence of various meanings of the same word in a certain historical period of time.
37. The process by which a word of wide meaning acquires a specialized sense is called ______ of meaning.
38. The context clue used in the sentence “Many United Nations’ employe.es are polyglots. Ms. Mary, for example, speaks five languages” is ______．
39.The idiom “by twos and threes” cannot be turned into “by threes and twos”. It shows that unlike free phrases, the structure of an idiom is to a large extent ______．
40. Bilingual dictionaries are written in ______ languages.
Ⅲ．Define the following terms.(15%)
41.creation (as one of the modes of vocabulary development)
44. linguistic context
45. phrasal verbs
IV. Answer the following questions. Your answers should be clear and short, Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET . (20%)
46. Explain the logical relationships of the following terms:
free morphemes, affix, morphemes, bound root, bound morphemes
47. In which aspects do compounds differ from free phrases?
48. What is the difference between superordinates and subordinates? Explain it with the given words “flower, elephant, tiger, rose, tulip, animal”.
49. Guess the meaning of the underlined word and tell what context clue is used.
He was in a mood of complete euphoria, his happiness being the result of an announcement that he had won the sweepstakes.
V. Analyze and comment on the following. Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET . (20%)
50. Take “a laconic answer is a short answer” as an example to illustrate etymological motivation.
51. Comment on the following groups of words in terms of types of antonyms: contradictory terms, contrary terms, relative terms.
“dead—alive”, “young—old”, “employer—employee”
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