Ⅰ.Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that best completes the statement and put the letter in the bracket. (30%)
1. Words can be classified into the basic word stock and nonbasic vocabulary by ______. （ ）
A. use frequency
2. In formal use, “pot” means “cooking utensil”. Whereas, when it means “marijuana”, it is a ______. （ ）
3. Translation-loans are words and expressions formed from the existing material in the English language but modelled on the patterns taken from another language. For example, the English expression “long time no see” is from ______. （ ）
4. The Germanic family consists of the four Northern European Languages: Norwegian, Icelandic, Danish and Swedish, which are generally known as ______ languages. （ ）
5. Which of the following is NOT the main source of new words? （ ）
A. The rapid development of modern science and technology.
B. Social, economic and political changes.
C. Environmental protection.
D. The influence of other cultures and languages.
6. Which of the following statements is NOT true? （ ）
A. In modern times，borrowing brings less than ten percent of modern English vocabulary.
B. Old English vocabulary was in essence Germanic with a small quantity of words borrowed from Latin and Scandinavian.
C. The most important mode of vocabulary development in present-day English is creation of new words by means of word-formation.
D. In early Middle English period，English，Latin，and Celtic existed side by side.
7. There are ______ free morphemic words in the following words：worker, car, impossible，anger, politely. （ ）
8. There is/are ______ stem(s)in the word“internationalists” （ ）
9. The past tense marker“-ed”is pronounced as/t/in the following words EXCEPT ______.（ ）
10. The most productive ways of word-formation in modern English are the following EXCEPT ______.（ ）
11. The formation of new words by joining two or more stems is called ______. （ ）
12. The word “pop” belongs to ______ clipping. （ ）
C. front and back
13. The ______ meaning of words usually shows the attitude of approval of the speaker. （ ）
14. Which of the following is NOT one of the associative meaning of a word? （ ）
A. Grammatical meaning.
B. Stylistic meaning.
C. Collocative meaning.
D. Connotative meaning.
15. ______ motivation explains the connection between the literal sense and figurative sense of the word.（ ）
16. Antonyms are classified on the basis of ______ opposition. （ ）
17. Lion，elephant，tiger, turtle，sheep and snake are ______ of animal. （ ）
18. As far as denotation is concerned，relative synonyms may differ ______.（ ）
A. in the diachronic approach
B. in the stylistic and emotive colouring of words
C. in usage in simple terms
D. in the range and intensity of meaning
19. Borrowing has caused word-meaning changes，as indicated in“______ formerly meant animal，and later animal from Latin and beast from French found their way into English ______.”（ ）
20. There are generally two major factors that cause changes in meaning，extra-linguistic factors and ______ factors within the language system. （ ）
21. ______ is a process by which a word of wider meaning acquires a specialized sense. For example，the original meaning of the word“meat” was food and the modern meaning is edible flesh. （ ）
22. Which of the following is NOT a context clue? （ ）
A. Relevant details.
B. Sentence structure.
23. The sentence “I like Mary better than John’’ is ambiguous due to ______. （ ）
A. grammatical context
24. In the sentence“Copernicus believed in a heliocentric universe，rather than in the geocentric theory”，the meaning of heliocentric call be inferred from the clue of ______.（ ）
A. relevant details
B. word structure
25. “Tooth and nail” is all idiom ______ in nature. （ ）
26. Which of the following rhetorical features can be seen in the idiom “wear and tear”? （ ）
27. The idiom “play fair” was created probably by______. （ ）
28. Encyclopaedic dictionaries can be further divided into encyclopaedia and ______
dictionaries. （ ）
29. LDCE is distinctive for the following features EXCEPT ______. （ ）
A. clear grammar codes
B. usage notes
C. 1anguage notes
D. extra column
30. Which of the following is NOT true for a Chinese-English Dictionary (revised Edition) (CED) (1995)? （ ）
A. It is a bilingual dictionary.
B. It is the most complete and up-to-date, most elaborately treated.
C. It cuts off the previous alphabetical order of entries.
D. It boasts of the quality of the English equivalents it provides for its Chinese items.
Ⅱ. Complete the following statements with proper words or expressions according to the course book. (15%)
31. Content words are changing all the time whereas functional words are ______.
32. If we say that Old English was a language of full endings, Middle English was one of ______ endings.
33. Derivational affixes can be further divided into prefixes and ______.
34. “Motel” is a word formed through ______.
35. Words like “bang, pingpong, miaow” are examples of ______ motivation.
36. Contradictory terms do not show ______, as far as antonyms are concerned.
37. Increased scientific knowledge and discovery are also important factors that account for the
change of word ______.
38. Based on the ______ context, we can determine the meaning of “Sarcasm doesn’t become you” as “Sarcasm doesn’t suit you”.
39. “Sing a different tune” is an idiom ______ in nature.
40. British dictionaries gene rally use International Phonetic Alphabet to mark the ______.
Ⅲ. Define the following terms. (15%)
44. lexical context
45. deletion of idioms
Ⅳ. Answer the following questions. Your answers should be clear and short. Write your answers in the space given below. (20%)
46. Please illustrate the logical relationships of the following terms: free morphemes, bound root, derivational affixes, affixes, morphemes, inflectional affixes, bound morphemes.
47. Prefixation and suffixation are two subclasses of affixation. Please define prefixation and suffixation and explain the difference between them. Use “polite—impolite”, “happy—happiness” to illustrate your point.
48. What are the four main sources of English synonyms?
49. What are contextual clues? Guess the meaning of the words underlined in the following sentences and tell what contextual clues have helped you in arriving at the meaning.
(a) Their greatest fear was of a conflagration, since fire would destroy their flimsy wooden settlement before help could arrive.
(b) As the fighting on all fronts reached its peak, the economy neared its nadir.
V. Analyze and comment on the following. Write your answers in the space given below. (20%)
50. Comment on the following groups of words to illustrate types of meaning of words and their relationship.
Group 1: “took, taught, became”
Group 2: “have, has, had, had, having”
51. Analyze and comment on three adjectives used in the following sentences based on synonym difference in connotation.
[A] Look at that little boy.
[B] Look at that small boy.
[C] Look at that tiny boy.
TEL：雷老师18773174440 蒋老师17773102705 陈老师0731-85718026