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农医类专业毕业论文:优质抗溃疡病黄肉猕猴桃品种的选育探析

2019-03-25 09:42:00
来源:湖南自考网

       毕业论文要求考生必须有一定的知识积累和阅读量,湖南自考生网小编为农医类专业的考生,收集整理了“农医类专业毕业论文:优质抗溃疡病黄肉猕猴桃品种的选育探析”,以供考生参考。毕业论文不会写》》》》论文保过

        摘    要:  ‘金喜’是以‘金桃’(武植81-1)为母本、中华猕猴桃雄性优株‘金雄1号’杂交选育出的黄肉猕猴桃新品种。果实圆柱形,果顶平或微凹,果皮黄褐色,果实端正均匀,平均单果质量88.5 g。果肉黄色,中心柱黄白色,所占的比例较小,肉质细嫩,风味浓,可溶性固形物含量15.0%~21.7%,干物质含量18.7%~23.5%,总糖含量12.2%~13.5%,可滴定酸含量1.0%~1.2%,果实维生素C含量1 416 mg·kg-1 鲜质量。果实较耐贮藏,常温下可贮1~2个月,低温下可贮4个月以上,软熟果货架期较长,常温下15~20 d,低温下1~2个月。果实生育期约150 d,在杭州地区4月下旬开花,10月上旬果实成熟。萌芽率72.7%,成枝率100%。在结果枝的1~8节着生花序5~8个,以单花和三花为主。坐果率95%以上,没有生理落果现象。嫁接苗第4年每666.7 m2产量超过1 000 kg,丰产稳产。不易感抗溃疡病。适于浙江等生态类似区域栽培。

        关键词:黄肉猕猴桃; 新品种; ‘金喜’; 不易感溃疡病;

        Abstract: ‘Jinxi’ is a yellow-fleshed kiwifruit cultivar with excellent fruit quality, its seedling is derived from a cross between ‘Jintao’ (a yellow-fleshed cultivar of A.chinensis) and ‘Jinxiong No.1’(a pollenizer strain of A.chinensis) in 2002 at the experimental field,and initially selected in 2007 for fruit weight, fruit shape and superior taste. Throughout regional adaptability test at three sites and productive trial planting from 2008 to 2014, it was finally selected and named ‘Jinxi’. In 2018, ‘Jinxi’ has passed the examination and approved by crop variety approval committee of Zhejiang province. The fruit are cylindrical and moderate to large in size. It weighs 88.5 grams in average. The stylar end is flat or slightly concave, the fruit skin present yellow green to dark brown. The fruit flesh is golden-yellow and fine juicy. Core appears yellowish white, its proportion in fruit flesh is small. The fruit has a fine texture, flavor is very sweet with aromatic taste, and mild with tangy aftertaste, smooth texture. The content of soluble solids, dry matters, total sugars, total acids and vitamin C is 15.0%-21.7%,18.7%-23.5%,12.2%-13.5%,1.0%-1.2% and 1 416 mg·kg-1 fresh weight, respectively. Timely harvesting is needed. When the content of soluble solids in fruit reach over 7.5%, the harvest begin. The fruit has good storage quality: storage life 1-2 months at ambient temperature and more than 4 months at cool store. The shelf life of softening fruit at room temperature could be more than 15 days and 1-2 months under cool-stored condition. The fruit development period of ‘Jinxi’ is about 150 days. It begins to bloom in late April and its fruit matures in early October in Hangzhou area. The chromosome of ‘Jinxi’ is tetraploid, with moderate to strong vigor, the percentage of bud germination and shoot forming are 72.7% and 100%, respectively. Flowers occur at nodes 1-8 of the fruiting shoots, and there are often 5 to 8 inflorescences on these nodes, predominantly singly or inflorescences of 3 flowers. The fruit set rate is above 95%, and there is no physiological fruit drop. ‘Jinxi’ is less susceptible to bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Psa) and has better performance under Psa condition. This cultivar is put into production early, with high and stable yield. Grafted plants of this cultivar start fruiting at the second year, and the output is above 1 000 kg per 666.7 m2 at the fourth year after grafting. Spacing in the rows and spacing between rows could be 3m×4m or 4m×4m, using the pergola and T-bar system, with a single trunk and two permanent leaders. ‘Jinxiong No.1’ or ‘Moshan male No.4’ is recommended as pollenizer, the ratio of male to female could be 5-8:1. The inheritance character of ‘Jinxi’ is stable, with the characteristics of large fruit, good yield, good quality and less susceptible to bacterial canker. Areas suitable for cultivation include Zhejiang and similar regions.

        Keyword:Yellow-fleshed kiwifruit; New cultivar; ‘Jinxi’; Less susceptible to Psa;

        品种及其结构是猕猴桃产业的基础和保障。当前栽培的猕猴桃品种中,国内有75.3%为绿肉品种,7.7%为黄肉品种,8.1%为红心品种,8.9%为软枣猕猴桃和毛花猕猴桃品种;而先进发达的新西兰有34%为黄肉品种,绿色品种已减至66%[1]。黄肉猕猴桃因营养丰富和风味浓甜而越来越受消费者和生产者的喜爱。但大多数黄肉猕猴桃品种不抗溃疡病,如‘黄金果’(Hort16A)、‘金桃’和‘金丰’等都被认定为溃疡病易感品种[2]。特别是‘黄金果’因爆发溃疡病而在新西兰惨遭淘汰。故而新西兰近来大力发展‘Gold 3’(Sun gold kiwifruit)和‘Gold 9’(Charming gold kiwifruit)等黄肉猕猴桃品种,其主要优点在于大果、风味较浓、耐贮和不易感溃疡病。这2个新品种为新西兰专利品种,得到植物品种权保护,虽其推广应用和相关生产仅局限于新西兰国内,但其果品在国际市场日益走俏。因此,培育优质抗溃疡病黄肉品种,对于提升我国猕猴桃育种水平,优化品种结构,提高其市场竞争力,促进猕猴桃产业升级增效,具有十分重要的意义。

        1 选育经过

        2002年春,浙江省农业科学院园艺研究所以中华猕猴桃黄肉品种‘金桃’为母本、中华猕猴桃雄性优株‘金雄1号’为父本开展人工杂交。于当年获得一批杂交种子并进行播种,次年得到杂交实生苗5 000余株。2004进入初选阶段,2005年对首批入选单株进行高接观察, 2007年从中确定了一批优良单株,其中1个黄肉单株的综合性状为优良,暂定编号为 ‘18-4’。2008年春开始在浙江省农业科学院杨渡基地进行新品种比较试验。2009年开始进行区试和生产性试种。经连续多年观测,‘18-4’遗传性状稳定,具有果实大、丰产性好、品质优良、不易感溃疡病等特点。2014年定名为‘金喜’,2018年通过浙江省非主要农作物认定(浙认果2018001)。

        2 主要性状

        2.1 植物学特征

        以已知二倍体‘红阳’为对照,经流式细胞仪鉴定,‘金喜’猕猴桃为四倍体,其母本‘金桃’为四倍体,而同类品种‘黄金果’(Hort16A)为二倍体。一年生枝浅褐色,二年生枝深褐色,皮孔椭圆形,棕色。叶片中等大小,质地厚实,叶柄淡绿色,叶尖凸尖或微钝,叶缘锯齿明显,叶面颜色绿色,叶背叶脉凸明显,叶背被灰白色茸毛。花多为单生,花冠白色,花瓣5~7片,雄蕊51~54枚,花冠直径3.9~4.5 cm,萼片3~5片,花柱39~42枚。

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